Maharashtr is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India as well as the third-most populous country subdivision in the world. It was formed on 1 May 1960 by splitting the bilingual Bombay State, which had existed since 1956, into majority Marathi-speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati-speaking Gujarat. The state is divided into 6 divisions and 36 districts, with the state capital being Mumbai, also the most populous urban area in India and Nagpur serving as the winter capital. The Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state. Marathi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The forest cover in the state is 16.47% of the state's geographical area. Out of total cultivable land in Maharashtra about 60% land is under food grain crops with Jowar (Sorghum bicolor) being the dominating crop.
According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, Maharashtra is the richest state in India and second most populous state in India with a population of 112,374,333 (9.28% of India's population) of which male and female are 58,243,056 and 54,131,277, respectively. The total population growth in 2011 was 15.99 percent while in the previous decade it was 22.57 percent.
Since independence, the decadal growth rate of population has remained higher (except in the year 1971) than the national average. For the first time, in the year 2011, it was found to be lower than the national average.
The 2011 census for the state found 55% of the population to be rural with 45% being urban based.
The official language is Marathi
although different regions have their own dialects.
It is native to the Maharashtra state, and is its main language. Marathi including its dialects is around 73.5% of population. About 83.1 million people mainly speak Marathi, making it the third-most spoken language in India, and 10th most-spoken native language in the world.
English is also spoken in Maharashtra, mostly in urban areas. Spoken Marathi language varies by district, area or locality in its tone and a few words. Hindi, Urdu, Konkani, Kannada, Telugu, Tulu and Gujarati are also spoken in many areas especially in the border regions of the state. Other major dialects include Varhadi spoken in the Vidarbha region and Dangi spoken near the Maharashtra-Gujarat border.