Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest, by the Indian union territory of Chandigarh to the east, and by the region of Jammu and Kashmir administered by India as a union territory, to the north. It is bordered by Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles), 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 23 districts. Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs and Hindus as the dominant religious groups. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are the Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum rivers; the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow through the Indian Punjab.

Punjab has the largest population of Sikhs in India and is the only state where Sikhs form a majority, numbering around 16 million forming 57.69% of the state population. Hinduism is the second largest religion in the Indian state of Punjab numbering around 10.68 million and forming 38.49% of the state's population and a majority in Doaba region. Islam is followed by 535,489 accounting 1.93% of the population and are mainly concentrated in Malerkotla and Qadian. Other smaller segments of religions existing in Punjab are Christianity practised by 1.26%, Jainism practised by 0.16%, Buddhism practised by 0.12% and others 0.36%. Sikhs form a majority in 17 districts out of the total 23 districts while Hindus form the majority in 5 districts namely, Pathankot, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Fazilka and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar districts and Muslims form majority in one district—Malerkotla district.